Stats in the Time of Microsoft

May 15th, 2013 | 139 comments

Milton Loyer

Milton Loyer ’67

Here’s the thing about statistics in this day and age: anyone can enter data into Microsoft Excel and, with a few clicks of the mouse, execute any number of statistical procedures and end up with any number of statistical outputs. Even a kindergartener could do it, right?

Indeed, as long as that kindergartner was skilled at detecting and correcting errors in the original data set, knew which specific statistical procedure was most relevant to a particular experimental objective, and could deliver a meaningful interpretation of the resulting output. That means people like Milton Loyer ’67 are still awfully handy to have around at places like the Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center in Biglerville, Pennsylvania, where he evaluates research on fertilizers, pesticides and crop management strategies.

Loyer spends much of his time combing through enormous sets of data, sometimes up to 10,000 lines at a time, in which there are bound to be keystroke errors (researchers, especially grad students, aren’t always as meticulous in this regard as a statistician would like). Sometimes the errors are obvious, like when a misplaced decimal point throws a figure off by one or more orders of magnitude. Other times, the errors are much more sneaky and subtle, revealed only in patterns that rouse Loyer’s suspicions and send him on the hunt for an explanation.

One example was a set of growth measurements from the orchard, in which the shoots appeared to be longer and shorter on alternating trees in a constant pattern – first longer, then shorter, longer, shorter. Loyer wandered out to the field to ask the workers how they’d collected the data. The orchard is big, they told him, and the job is boring. To keep things interesting, two of them had alternated roles at every tree. One would measure the shoots, and one would write down the numbers. They had used different measuring sticks, and on closer inspection, Loyer found that one of the sticks had an extra 2 millimeters on the end below the true zero mark. The mystery was solved and the data were adjusted accordingly. Excel can’t do that kind of thing.

After graduating with a math degree from EMU, Loyer went on to earn his PhD at Montana State University. He later taught at Messiah College in Grantham, Pennsylvania (EMU math professor Owen Byer was a student of Loyer’s there in the mid-’80s). In addition to his work as a statistician, he runs the archives of the United Methodist Church’s Susquehanna Conference at Lycoming College in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, where he is also an adjunct math professor. He also finds time to manage his own affordable housing ministry in Williamsport, do some occasional statistical consulting, and, recently, “after much thought, several false starts, and helpful insight from colleagues” explain a mind-bending, paradoxical result that turned up in the statistical analysis of an apple defect study.1

The real breakthrough came after a summary of this paradox – which he’s trying to popularize as “Loyer’s paradox” – was booted from Wikipedia on grounds of being impossible. The insight that led to Loyer’s explanation of the paradox was sparked during subsequent discussion of the matter with Wikipedia’s statistics editor (although the solution has been published, the entry has yet to be reinstated on Wikipedia). That’s something Excel won’t do either.  — Andrew Jenner ’04

1. Loyer, Milton W. and Gene D. Sprechini. “Can the Probability of an Event Be Larger or Smaller Than Each of Its Component Conditional Probabilities?” Chance: A Magazine for People Interested in the Analysis of Data 24.1 (2011): 44-53. Print.

139 Responses to "Stats in the Time of Microsoft"

  1. thanks says:

    very very nice post

  2. Himanshu says:

    If you were getting trouble to clear the program in windows 10 pc then just from here get the tutorial to clear clipboard history in windows 10 pc in easy steps which you will do it online by getting help support from our tutorial.

  3. Taylor Wilson says:

    I’ve hurled around selling my 15-representative MSP. Not excessively genuine yet but Aoneessays
    rather getting up there and the idea now and then rings a bell.

  4. light novel says:

    This is really a great stuff for sharing. Keep it up .Thanks for sharing.

  5. data hk says:

    Hi there do you thoughts allowing me realize which usually webhost you’re working with? I’ve filled your blog post Stats in the Time of Microsoft – Crossroads Online throughout Several various web browsers and I should state this site tons faster next most. Is it possible to advocate an excellent web hosting provider with a reasonable cost? Cheers, We enjoy it!.data hk

  6. Your article is very good, I have read many articles but I am really impressed with your posts. Thank you, I will review this article. To know about me, try talking to me.

  7. Geile Exhibitionistin Teen zeigt ihren ganzen Körper ihrer engen Freundin, wo sie die Umkleidekabine des Ladens betritt, dann saugt sie den Schwanz ihrer Freundin und entspannt sie.

  8. Teen Porn says:


    Sexy girl who comes to the beauty salon is undressed and getting ready for the laser operation. The naked women performs laser operation on her pussy and asshole, making her smooth. We record these special images with the spy camera.

  9. Mamma e figlio francesi incesto video porno

    Mamma e figlio incesto francesi Ero fuori a fare una passeggiata quando ho notato questa ragazza fumante che sembrava avere uno di quei giorni. Vedi, Linda Black è arrivata da Madrid per incontrare un ragazzo per un servizio fotografico, ma hanno cancellato le riprese su di lei!

  10. Thanks for sharing such a nice piece of information to us

  11. دریل says:

    Thank you for your good website.

  12. thank you good site very nice

  13. skribbl io says:

    Live your own way, enjoying your own passion. Articles with creativity and useful information.

  14. Glad to be one of many visitants on this amazing site : D.

  15. Thank you, I will review this article.

  16. çed raporu says:

    çed raporu nedir ? çed raporu hakkında bilmeni gereken her şey bu adreste.

  17. çevre danışmanlık firması

  18. SÇP says:

    Beautiful paylaşım

  19. Rich information, that’s really good, I’m looking for it, thanks for sharing.

  20. absolutely fruitful thank you
    برای تقویت اسپیکینگ speaking باید از بهترین روش های موجود در زبان انگلیسی جهت هم تقویت مکالمه و هم تقویت لیسنینگ استفاده کنید. چون این مهارت ها با هم در ارتباط بوده و همه باهم میتوانند موجب یادگیری زبان انگلیسی در کوتاهترین زمان شوند

  21. CM Petel says:

    It’s great to have the opportunity to read a good quality article with useful information on topics of interest. I agree with your conclusion.

  22. bu bölgede en iyi hizmet vermek çok güzel.

  23. Hayat bazen bizi bir çok yere götürür orası cennet.

  24. Antakya bölgesinde en iyi hizmet sunan arkadaşlık sitesi.

  25. Hatay antakya arkadaşlık sitesi.

  26. hatay escort says:

    Hatay iskenderun avm alışveriş merkezi.

  27. hatay escort says:

    Hatay en güçlü alt yapısı ile eskort sitesidir.

  28. en iyi iskenderun arkadaşlık sitesi.

  29. çok hatay traval süper.

  30. hatay escort says:

    Hatay bölgesinde en kaliteli eskortluk hizmeti sunan web site.

  31. Hayat genç ve dinamik radyo sitesi.

  32. news says:

    nice site. I liked it very much.

  33. Seni Seviyorum mesajları ve sözleri, en güzle aşk ilanları

  34. shad says:

    Thank you for sharing this information with us. I really appreciate it.

  35. montiego says:

    good post and amazing

  36. kids cars says:

    Little youngsters are interested and want to investigate their reality. Children ride on vehicles will permit them to do this in a protected way. It can cause them to feel greater than they truly are. They are cruising all over in the little vehicles like the way that Mom and Dad drive them in and out of town. There are various quality ride on vehicles accessible and many don’t have wellbeing guidelines so it’s essential to do your exploration cautiously prior to making a buy. Guardians ought to make certain to choose ride on vehicles that pass European Standards. Guardians don’t need to stress over these rideon vehicles being perilous, as the organizations that produce them have played it safe to guarantee fun without risks.

  37. McauleyHanna says:

    Hey, this site was recommended from the site that i just browsed earlier thats why i got curious and so far i am impress of what i`ve seen here. Here`s the goodluck for the progress of your site. Thanks เว็บบาคาร่า

  38. Takipçi Satın Al 50 says:

    Takipçi Satın Al konusunda oldukça uygun bir fiyata takipçi hizmeti veren sitemiz cebinize uygun bir şekilde hizmet ediyoruz. Detaylı bilgi ve randevu için websitemizi ziyaret ederek bizimle iletişime geçebilirsiniz.41

  39. takipçi satın al 10 says:

    Takipçi Satın Al konusunda oldukça uygun bir fiyata takipçi hizmeti veren sitemiz cebinize uygun bir şekilde hizmet ediyoruz. Detaylı bilgi ve randevu için websitemizi ziyaret ederek bizimle iletişime geçebilirsiniz.415

  40. takipçi satın al 3000 says:

    Takipçi Satın Al konusunda oldukça uygun bir fiyata takipçi hizmeti veren sitemiz cebinize uygun bir şekilde hizmet ediyoruz. Detaylı bilgi ve randevu için websitemizi ziyaret ederek bizimle iletişime geçebilirsiniz4040

  41. takipci satın al 9000 says:

    hesabınıza takipçi satın al. Hemen buradan sınırsız takipçi satın alabilirsiniz.

  42. balaban says:

    Güvenilir tiktok takipçi satın al. Hemen buradan sınırsız takipçi satın alabilirsiniz.

  43. really thank you for the amazing information!

  44. hari says:

    Honestly, I would like to say that its a very genuine post which i have ever seen
    thank you so much for this information.
    If you are searching for a reliable and genuine online assignment help provider then you can buy our services.

  45. says:

    Very useful information. Thanks for sharing such wonderful blog post with us. I hope the readers might find the content as useful. Have a look:

  46. says:

    Thanks for sharing such an informative post. Hope the readers might find this blog content as useful

  47. says:

    Thanks for sharing such an informative post with us. Hope other readers might find this blog content as useful. Thanks

  48. temple run says:

    This topic is very interesting and I am interested but do not know where to find, thankfully you create this topic, hope everyone will help me

  49. says:

    It’s really great. Thank you for providing a quality article. There is something you might be interested in. Do you know ? If you have more questions, please come to my site and check it out!

  50. Jack Mamba says:

    Awesome post. The Blog content is very useful and thansks for sharing with us. Hope the readers might find this blog as useful. Have a look:

  51. I read your entire article and I genuinely like it. Thank you for discussing this great post.

  52. Enroutech says:

    An advanced Fleet Management System that helps reduced costs, enhance vehicle utilization.

  53. says:

    good post and tnks

  54. googls says:

    An advanced Fleet Fleet Management Systemthat helps reduced costs, enhance vehicle utilization.

  55. Thanks for sharing this great information. It will be helpful for this site jobs in dubai

  56. hastahaneler says:

    I read your entire article and I genuinely like it. Thank you for discussing this great post.

  57. Jennifer says:

    Ver well. Keep sharing more. Please also read mine blog and let me know where I can improve. Also, you can find interesting coupons info to save hard earned pennies.
    katie loxton discount code

  58. Edward says:

    I really like articles like this, good and informative!
    IBOPLAY slot.

  59. İşinde uzman ankara estetik ve plastik cerrahi uzmanı > Ankara Estetik Cerrah

  60. Gelişimini tamamlamış memesini küçük veya asimetrik bulan her yaşta kadın veya trans bireylere uygulanabilir. Ayrıca sarkma şikayeti de olan hastalara meme dikleştirme ameliyatı ile birlikte uygulanabilir. meme büyütme Ankara

  61. Kas altı protez koymaya elverişli her hastada kendisinin farklı bir beklentisi yok ise kas altı plan tercih edilir. Gögüs Büyütme Ankara Kas dokusu protezin üzerinde güçlü ve kalın bir örtü oluşturarak protezin stabilizasyonunu arttırır, olası cilt üzerinden protez katlantılarının belli olma ihtimalini yok eder, enfeksiyon riskini azaltır ve protezi meme dokusundan izole ederek meme görüntüleme yöntemlerinde tutarlılık sağlar.

  62. Tempat bermain slot online dengan menggunakan uang asli terdapat di Bandar Slot Hoki

  63. iboplaylive says:

    IBOPLAY Permainan kasino online memang seru, fun, menghibur dan juga memiliki potensial untuk mendapatkan kemenangan. iboplay

  64. Agen poker terbaik IBOPLAY Selama beberapa tahun terakhir, slot online menjadi salah satu permainan kasino online yang paling populer. IBOPLAY menyediakan permainan slot online dari Pragmatic Play, PG Soft, AIS Gaming, Spade Gaming, AFB Gaming, Joker Gaming dan masih banyak penyedia slot lain yang menjadi mitra kami. agen poker terbaik

  65. CMDPLAY SLOT Hadir sebagai penyedia jasa layanan judi slot online, bandar judi slot ini menyediakan berbagai macam jenis permainan judi slot online. cmdplay slot

  66. selazebua says:

    Situs CMDPLAY kini hadir menyediakan judi bola SBOBET terbaik. Bermain judi bola online bisa dikatakan cukup mudah bagi pemula sekalipun. Kita sudah tidak asing lagi bukan dengan permainan judi bola online Bandar Bola Terpercaya Tahun 2022. bandar bola terpercaya 2022

  67. Selamat datang ke situs IBOPLAY, kami merupakan situs agen casino online. yang menawarkan ragam produk judi online dari slot online, poker online, casino games, sportsbetting dan juga togel online. IBOPLAY

  68. chealsea says:

    Hallo guys selamat datang disitus terbaik bos88 slot online. Merupakan situs judi terbesar yang telah dikenal oleh semua kalangan pemain judi online indonesia. bos88

  69. Moloz Hattı says:

    Great article. Thank you for keeping us informed about these great topics.

  70. mimiki123 says:

    Hello ganks, kami SniSlot88 sebagai situs slot uang asli hadir di Indonesia dengan memberikan ragam pilihan permainan slot online terbaik.

  71. amanda88 says:

    Situs slot online terbaik dan terbesar di Indonesia yakni CMDPLAY. Memberikan jalan keluar kepada Anda pecinta game judi slot online untuk bisa menikmati bermain meski di situasi mengharuskan untuk berada rumah saja bandar slot 2022

  72. stay4d says:

    stay4d agen slot online deposit pulsa Tanpa Potongan dengan provider slot online terlengkap

  73. nice post you are artist , i am big fan

  74. Tempat bermain judi slot terbaik hanya di Agen Slot Gacor

  75. Your Doing A great Job

  76. Mumbai says:

    Nice Work Pls Keep Post

  77. Article Submission On Our Website

  78. Bandar Slot Hoki88 – Setiap orang yang pernah mengunjungi wisata kasino di dunia seperti Las Vegas, Macau, Genting dan lain-lain. Pasti tahu kalau permainan yang paling terlihat dan banyak adalah permainan slot.

  79. Togel online diskon terbesar serta pasaran terlengkap tersedia di SNITOGEL.
    Togel HKB Gaming

  80. Great sharing. I love your article very much!

  81. Slot online paling gacor dan mudah menang hanya di situs playland88

  82. this information is really good, in case you guys interesting in some gambling i would like to suggest to try this IBOPLAY SLOT, really easy to access and have a lots of reward in it.

  83. Situs Casino Online Terpercaya 2021 | SNI CASINO | Agen Casino Online

  84. vvipsnitgl says:

    Poker HKB Gaming dari Snitogel. SNITOGEL adalah Agen Judi Online yang menyediakan permainan Poker HKB Terpercaya di Indonesia. Poker HKB Gaming adalah Game Judi Poker Online yang mempunyai popularitas tinggi di Indonesia. HKB juga merupakan provider terbaik yang menyediakan berbagai permainan judi online. vvipsnitgl

  85. vvipsnitgl says:

    Poker HKB Gaming dari Snitogel. SNITOGEL adalah Agen Judi Online yang menyediakan permainan Poker HKB Terpercaya di Indonesia. Poker HKB Gaming adalah Game Judi Poker Online yang mempunyai popularitas tinggi di Indonesia. HKB juga merupakan provider terbaik yang menyediakan berbagai permainan judi online. vvipsnitgl

  86. IOBBET says:

    Bandar judi slot terpopuler dengan ragam slot menarik tersedia di IOBBET

  87. Coupon4All says:

    You guy do so well. Your post is very nice and I’m really impressed with it. Thanks for sharing such a nice piece of information.
    To know about me, click here

  88. Snicasino says:

    Situs judi casino online terbaik dan terpercaya SNICASINO

  89. I did learn it but there are issues that I still don’t know

  90. ak47th says:

    We always develop the system to be up-to-date, spin the wheel, the entrance to the online slot game website and the various games are outstanding, eye-catching, the entrance to the website is easy to understand.ak47th

  91. Etiket says:

    Thank you so much.

  92. quordle says:

    Thanks so much for this information. I have to let you know I concur on several of the points you make here and others may require some further review, but I can see your viewpoint

  93. dinazebua says:

    Fitur slot deposit pulsa Telkomsel bisa di manfaatkan bagi Anda pecinta slot untuk di gunakan sebagai modal bermain slot online. SNICASINO

  94. chandoi says:

    Thank you for posting this article. I act as a test user of game sites to check the safety of those game sites, I noticed a game that is being played a lot by students and is quite safe for everyone. Lol beans is a fun game with adorable and emotional snakes. It is a popular game that attracts people of all genders and beans

  95. cmdplay says:

    CMDPLAY Agen Slot Online Terpercaya Di Indonesia sebagai salah satu penyedia agen slot online terbesar dan bekerjasama dengan provider slot online terbaik agar anda bisa bermain di semua permainan slot online cukup menggunakan 1 ID saja. CMDPLAY

  96. SNICASINO says:

    Agen slot gacor permainan terlengkap SNICASINO hadir dengan tema permainan baru untuk para pemain slot dan menerapkan program reward yang sangat fantastis .

  97. gartic phone says:

    The true breakthrough happened when a summary of this dilemma, which he is trying to publicize as “Loyer’s paradox,” was removed from Wikipedia because it couldn’t possibly exist.

  98. salma says:

    Situs Slot Online IBOPLAY Permainan kasino online memang seru, fun, menghibur dan juga memiliki potensial. Untuk mendapatkan kemenangan. Namun masih banyak sekali orang enggan mencoba situs bandar casino online karena masalah keamanan dan juga minimnya informasi terkait situs yang menyediakan permainan ini. Banyak orang yang mempertanyakan kredibilitas bandar casino terpercaya, karena ketika mencoba melakukan pendaftaran.
    rel=”nofollow ugc”>playland slot88

  99. nt88 says:

    promotionslot play game casino have fun and to easy clik

  100. Pinkyy says:

    Thanks for this post. I’m looking forwards to the next article in the future.

  101. ekatoto says:

    Selamat datang ke situs EKATOTO, kami merupakan situs bandar togel deposit pulsa terbaik di Indonesia dengan prediksi paling akurat di setiap pasaran togel terkenal di dunia .

  102. your useful information. Thanks for the post.

  103. that gives you lots of wins, then I recommend the Judi Online Slot site. With so many types of online slot game choices

  104. you keep publishing such good information which will be useful to all. Andheri |

  105. Mumbai says:

    Nice Post Good Work

  106. andi says:

    your useful information. Thanks for the post.

  107. weritabatab says:

    Really nice and interesting post.Thank you for this wonderful Article.بوتاکس گونه

  108. Do you know what is and what are it’s advantage? If no! then innovativehub will provide every information about it .

  109. We will recommend and introduce each Toto site that suits the characteristics of each company and members. Make high profits through our eating tiger. 먹튀 검증

  110. Ayushi Bosus says:

    we will always be grateful to you and will share your hard-written article with our friends too.

  111. CMDPLAY says:

    Bandar slot online CMDPLAY ialah salah satu web judi online tergacor, Yang mempunyai game slot terlengkap. Game yang tersedia disitus CMDPLAY, yaitu Togel, Slot, Poker dan Bola. Sebagai bandar slot online, Yang telah ada semenjak tahun 2013 dan berdiri hingga kini. CMDPLAY juga menyediakan sebagian sistem pembayaran seperti Bank transfer, E-Money, Pulsa Telkomsel dan XL.

  112. Anonymous says:

    This is really a wonderful website.thanksباتری سمعک ریواک[Enter]

  113. Anonymous says:

    Everything is well polished and perfectly written.باتری سمعک زیمنس

  114. MTOVER says:

    I enjoyed reading a good article.은꼴 It was very helpful and gave me some good information. I will visit you often.

  115. Daftar303 says:

    Situs Daftar303 telah membikin kumpulan web judi online terlengkap untuk mempermudah kalian dalam memilih website judi online yang terbaik dan terpercaya. Dan dari hasil pencariannya, ada sungguh-sungguh banyak sekali web judi dan jenisnya berbeda-beda pula. Daftar303 sudah mengelompokan web-web judi hal yang demikian pantas dengan variasi permainan dan server yang di pakai. Dari sekian banyak macam yang dikumpulkan di web situs slot terbaik hal yang demikian, ada sebagian yang dapat diandalkan.

  116. Penyedia Slot Gacor Bonus Turnover

  117. Idell Geddes says:

    Jabodetabek private tutoring services with teachers coming over to the house. Over countless active tutors decide to teach various skills and lessons for the children to adults … visit for more information

  118. Adrienne Welding says:

    Jabodetabek exclusive teaching products and services along with professors arriving at the particular house. More than 1000 energetic trainers will be ready show various skills and also lessons for the kids to be able to grownups … go to for further

  119. Lizbeth Duitscher says:

    You may will discover a cheaper fee compared to the table above, ensure again about the qualifications with the teacher / Kindergarten teacher recommended to you personally … for detail

  120. 留信认证 says:

    Choose the best portal for a new registration for IELTS exams. We will update all news and information about IELTS test booking in various locations. Contact us to know more.

  121. jpspin88 says:

    LOGIN JPSPIN88 adalah merek hiburan online yang melayani seperti taruhan sepakbola online, kasino online, slot, keno dan lotere, biner, poker, dan permainan lainnya.

  122. Kain Vaughn says:

    Join our esteemed foreign language course at and set about a linguistic adventure of a lifetime. Immerse yourself inside richness within your target language, guided by expert instructors who be aware of the nuances and intricacies of effective language acquisition. Whether you’re a novice or a complicated learner, our tailored curriculum will empower you to navigate diverse cultures with finesse and flair. Tap for registration.

  123. anti-jam says:

    anti jam systems, turkey defense industry

  124. fancade friv says:

    Fancade, the producer of the most beautiful friv, is preparing more car driving..

  125. very good article thank you

Leave a Reply